Research Article| Volume 1, ISSUE 1, P8-22, July 1976

A classification for congenital limb malformations

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      The classification for congenital limb malformations adopted by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand, the International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand, and the International Society of Prosthetics and Orthotics is presented. This method groups similar patterns of deficiencies according to the parts that have been primarily affected by certain embryological failures, whether the insult involves a total part (skeletal and soft tissue) or only the dermomyofascial structures. The main categories of this classification are (I) failure of formation of parts, (II) failure of differentiation (separation) of parts, (III) duplication, (IV) overgrowth, (V) undergrowth, (VI) congenital constriction band syndrome, and (VII) generalized skeletal abnormalities. The rationale and method of use of the classification are discussed. This method has been tested and used in a variety of centers and has been found to be properly conceived and practical.
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