Editor's Choice| Volume 48, ISSUE 2, P126-133, February 2023

Long-Term Results of Microsurgical Brachial Plexus Reconstruction in Late-Presenting Cases of Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

Published:December 18, 2022DOI:


      The role of primary surgery in delayed presenting cases of brachial plexus birth injury is still debated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of brachial plexus reconstruction performed at the age of ≥12 months.


      Twenty-nine cases were included. Five cases had upper (C5–6) palsy, 4 had upper/middle (C5–7), and 20 had total (C5–8 and T1) palsy.


      The age at the time of primary surgery was an average of 15.6 months. The brachial plexus was formally explored and neurolysis, grafting, and neurotization were used in different combinations. Exploration revealed that 27% of the roots were avulsed and 32% were ruptured. The follow-up was an average of 7.9 years. Generally, the best functional recovery was elbow flexion followed by shoulder external rotation. Satisfactory shoulder abduction (≥6 on the Toronto Active Movement Scale [TAMS]) was achieved in 31% of cases. The abduction range was an average of 79° ± 35°; 50° in upper palsy, 103° in upper/middle palsy, and 82° in total palsy. Shoulder external rotation ≥6 on the TAMS was achieved in 62% of cases. External rotation range was an average of 58° ± 29°; 78° in upper palsy, 68° in upper/middle palsy, and 52° in total palsy. Elbow flexion and extension of ≥6 on the TAMS were achieved in 69% and 58% of cases, respectively. Wrist flexion and finger flexion of ≥6 on the TAMS were achieved in 35% and 12.5%, whereas wrist and finger extension of >6 on the TAMS were achieved in 25% and 4% of cases, respectively.


      In the delayed presentation of brachial plexus birth injury, brachial plexus reconstruction results in good functional recovery of elbow flexion and shoulder external rotation but modest functional recovery of finger flexion and wrist extension. The rate of functional recovery of the elbow flexion was similar following nerve grafting and transfer. Nerve transfer for shoulder external rotation should be considered even in infants with available roots for grafting.

      Type of study/level of evidence

      Therapeutic IV.

      Key words

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