Surgical Management of Spastic Shoulder Deformities in Adult Patients

      Spastic shoulder deformity in patients with upper motor neuron syndrome results from an imbalance of muscle forces about the shoulder girdle. In typical spastic deformities, the shoulder assumes an adducted and internally rotated posture. The severity of the deformity can range over a spectrum depending on the involved muscle groups, degree of spasticity, and presence of myostatic and/or joint contractures. Surgical options to correct the spastic shoulder deformity can be broadly classified as procedures for the functional versus nonfunctional shoulder or, in other words, preserved versus absent volitional motor control, respectively. Techniques include tenotomy, fractional lengthening, tenodesis, and periarticular soft tissue release. A focused physical examination is imperative in developing a patient-specific treatment algorithm.

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