Scientific Article| Volume 47, ISSUE 8, P789.e1-789.e8, August 2022

Histopathological, Ultrastructural, and Immunohistochemical Findings in Radial Longitudinal Deficiency: A Prospective, Observational Study

Published:August 25, 2021DOI:


      To report the histopathological, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings of tissue samples obtained from patients with radial longitudinal deficiency (RLD) and investigate the contribution of abnormality in soft tissues as a secondary driver of deformity in RLD.


      Specimens from radial-sided muscles and tendons were obtained at the time of surgery (either radialization or centralization) from 14 patients with 16 limbs affected with Bayne type 3 and type 4 RLD. The specimens were evaluated using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical examination.


      Among the 16 frozen muscle specimens, 6 (37%) showed normal muscle, while 10 (63%) showed the presence of atrophic fibers. The 6 cases with normal muscle showed no abnormality in fiber type distribution. Six patients showed predominance of type 1 muscle fibers. None of the specimens had myofibroblasts; 4 of 16 specimens had mast cells, and 9 of 16 specimens showed the presence of platelet derived growth factor–positive cells. Features of myofibroblasts (the presence of basal lamina, intercellular junctions, or pinocytic vesicles) were not identified in any specimen on electron microscopy.


      The histopathological, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings, in particular the absence of myofibroblasts, in tissue samples obtained from patients with RLD, do not support the assumption of abnormality in soft tissues as a secondary driver of deformity in RLD.

      Clinical relevance

      This study provides a preliminary insight into a possible role of soft tissues in the development of the deformity in RLD.

      Key words

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