High bone density and quality is associated with improved screw fixation in fracture fixation. The objective of this study was to assess bone density and quality in the proximal and distal scaphoid to determine optimum sites for placement of 2 screws in scaphoid fracture fixation.
Twenty-nine cadaveric human scaphoid specimens were harvested and scanned using micro–computed tomography. Bone density (bone volume fraction) and bone quality (relative bone surface area, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness) were evaluated in 4 quadrants within each of the proximal and distal scaphoid.
The proximal radial quadrant of the scaphoid had significantly greater bone volume than the distal ulnar (mean difference, 33.2%) and distal volar quadrants (mean difference, 32.3%). There was a significantly greater trabecular number in the proximal radial quadrant than in the distal ulnar (mean difference, 16.7%) and in the distal volar quadrants (mean difference, 15.9%) and between the proximal ulnar and the distal ulnar quadrants (mean difference, 12%). There was a significantly greater bone surface area in the proximal radial and distal radial quadrants than in the distal ulnar and distal volar quadrants. There were no significant differences in trabecular thickness between the 8 analyzed quadrants
Although there are differences in bone volume, trabecular number, and bone surface area between the proximal pole of the scaphoid and that of the distal pole, there were no significant differences in the bone quality (trabecular thickness, trabecular number, and relative bone surface area) and density (bone volume fraction) between the 4 quadrants of the proximal or distal pole of the cadaveric scaphoids studied.
Insertion of 2 headless compression screws can be determined by ease of surgical access and ease of screw positioning and not by differences in bone quality or density of the proximal or distal scaphoid.
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Published online: July 25, 2020
Accepted: May 27, 2020
Received: May 5, 2019
No benefits in any form have been received or will be received related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
© 2020 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. All rights reserved.