Patient-reported outcome measures are increasingly used to measure patient status, impairments, and disability, but often require lengthy surveys and place a considerable burden on patients. We hypothesized that the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), composed of a single question, would be a valid and responsive instrument to provide a global assessment of hand function.
The SANE, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System–Upper Extremity (PROMIS-UE), and Quick–Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) data are routinely collected electronically in our hand and upper-extremity center. To identify our cohort, we used Current Procedural Terminology codes to query our electronic medical record research data repository for the 7 most common hand surgery procedures performed over 2 years from December 2016 to 2018. These procedures included carpal tunnel release, trigger finger release, thumb carpometacarpal arthroplasty, wrist arthroscopy, distal radius fracture fixation, first dorsal compartment release, and cubital tunnel release. Patients undergoing a single isolated procedure with questionnaires obtained in the preoperative and/or postoperative period were included in the analysis. Convergent validity, coverage, and responsiveness for each instrument were assessed.
We identified 214 patients for inclusion. The SANE score had a moderate to strong correlation with the QuickDASH and PROMIS-UE. Floor and ceiling effects for the SANE were less than 10% at baseline and follow-up. Overall, the QuickDASH was the most responsive, followed by SANE and PROMIS-UE; all 3 instruments exceeded the acceptable thresholds for responsiveness and demonstrated significant changes before to after surgery. Responsiveness of the SANE varied by procedure and was acceptable for carpal tunnel release, carpometacarpal arthroplasty, wrist arthroscopy, and trigger finger release.
The single-item SANE is a reasonable measure of global function in patients undergoing common hand procedures and demonstrates psychometric properties comparable to those of the PROMIS-UE and QuickDASH outcome scores.
The SANE score is a reasonable outcome measure of global hand function that may have utility in demonstrating response to treatment in a practice setting and may provide a useful adjunct to multiple-item measures in clinical research studies.
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Published online: May 29, 2020
Accepted: March 27, 2020
Received: March 6, 2019
No benefits in any form have been received or will be received related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article.
© 2020 by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. All rights reserved.