Advertisement

Industry Funding and Self-Declared Conflict of Interest in Hand Surgery Publications

Published:April 01, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2020.02.017

      Purpose

      Accurate financial disclosure is essential to prevent bias in scientific reporting. We aimed (1) to document the extent of industry financial payments to hand surgery literature authors and (2) to uncover discrepancies in author self-declared conflict of interest (COI).

      Methods

      We screened all scientific and review articles published in 2017 from the American editions of 4 peer-reviewed journals (Journal of Hand Surgery [JHS], Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery [JBJS], Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery [PRS], and Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons [JAAOS]) to identify authors of hand, wrist, elbow, and peripheral nerve topics. We compared self-reported disclosures with industry-reported payments on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Open Payments Database (OPD) for 3 years prior to publication or per journal policy. We individually examined each for relevance of the corporate payer to the article’s subject matter.

      Results

      We found 630 eligible authors from 395 articles. The total amount of industry-reported payments over 3 years prior to publication was $24,396,607.80. The median total payments per author per year was $118.40, with interquartile range from $0 to $1,364; 68% of authors received some industry payment; the most common being food and beverage (66% of authors). Senior authors received significantly more industry payments (median, $2,985.67/y) than first and middle authors ($70.27 and $113.17, respectively). Of all authors examined, 58% had undisclosed payments, but only 14% were relevant to the article subject matter. Authors in JAAOS & JBJS, senior authors, and those receiving more than $500,000 from industry were less likely to accurately report all payments.

      Conclusions

      Industry payments to hand surgery authors were lower than those reported to other orthopedic specialties and tended to be concentrated in a few authors receiving large amounts. Relevant COI disclosure inaccuracies are infrequent within hand surgery literature. Uniform policies of complete disclosure across journals may remove author judgment regarding payment relevance to published material and help eliminate remaining COI errors. Authors may reference the OPD prior to submitting disclosures to prevent potential discrepancies and identify errors within the database.

      Clinical relevance

      Relationships with industry offer opportunities for innovation, education, and research, but overlooking COI self-reporting may erode confidence in the academic integrity of the hand surgery literature.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Hand Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Campbell E.G.
        • Gruen R.L.
        • Mountford J.
        • Miller L.G.
        • Cleary P.D.
        • Blumenthal D.
        A national survey of physician–industry relationships.
        NEngl J Med. 2007; 356: 1742-1750
        • Ziai K.
        • Pigazzi A.
        • Smith B.R.
        • et al.
        Association of compensation from the surgical and medical device industry to physicians and self-declared conflict of interest.
        JAMA Surg. 2018; 153: 997-1002
        • Field M.J.
        • Lo B.
        Conflict of Interest in Medical Research, Education, and Practice.
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2009
        • Boddapati V.
        • Fu M.C.
        • Nwachukwu B.U.
        • Ranawat A.S.
        • Zhen W.Y.
        • Dines J.S.
        Accuracy between AJSM author-reported disclosures and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database.
        Am J Sports Med. 2018; 46: 969-976
        • Checketts J.X.
        • Cook C.
        • Vassar M.
        An evaluation of industry relationships among contributors to AAOS clinical practice guidelines and appropriate use criteria.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018; 100: e10
        • Buerba R.A.
        • Sheppard W.L.
        • Herndon K.E.
        • et al.
        Academic influence and its relationship to industry payments in orthopaedic surgery.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018; 100: e59
      1. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. PL, §6002: Transparency reports and reporting of physician ownership or investment interests. 2010. Available at: https://www.congress.gov/111/plaws/publ148/PLAW-111publ148.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2020.

        • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
        Open Payments. 2019.
        (Available at:)
        https://www.cms.gov/OpenPayments/index.html
        Date accessed: February 28, 2019
        • Cherla D.V.
        • Olavarria O.A.
        • Holihan J.L.
        • et al.
        Discordance of conflict of interest self-disclosure and the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services.
        J Surg Res. 2017; 218: 18-22
        • Patel S.V.
        • Yu D.
        • Elsolh B.
        • Goldacre B.M.
        • Nash G.M.
        Assessment of conflicts of interest in robotic surgical studies: validating author's declarations with the open payments database.
        Ann Surg. 2018; 268: 86-92
        • Ziai K.
        • Sahyouni R.
        • Moshtaghi O.
        • et al.
        An analysis of the Open Payment Database in neurotology.
        Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018; 158: 319-322
      2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service. Open Payments Data. Available at: https://openpaymentsdata.cms.gov/. Accessed February 28, 2019.

        • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors
        ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. 2019.
        (Available at:)
        • Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
        Instructions for Authors. 2019.
        (Available at:)
        • Elsevier
        The Journal of Hand Surgery Guide for Authors. 2019.
        (Available at:)
        • American Society of Plastic Surgeons
        Information for Authors: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2019.
        (Available at:)
        • American Soceity of Orthopaedic Surgeons
        AAOS Disclosure Program. 2019.
        (Available at)
        http://www7.aaos.org/education/disclosure
        Date accessed: March 19, 2019
        • Fu M.C.
        • Boddapati V.
        • Nwachukwu B.U.
        • Ranawat A.S.
        • Albert T.J.
        • Dines J.S.
        Conflict-of-interest disclosures to the Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery: The relevance of industry-reported payments.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2018; 100: e51
        • Cvetanovich G.L.
        • Chalmers P.N.
        • Bach Jr., B.R.
        Industry financial relationships in orthopaedic surgery: analysis of the sunshine act open payments database and comparison with other surgical subspecialties.
        J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2015; 97: 1288-1295
        • Purvis T.E.
        • Lopez J.
        • Milton J.
        • May Jr., J.W.
        • Dorafshar A.H.
        Plastic surgeons’ perceptions of financial conflicts of interest and the Sunshine Act.
        Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2018; 6: e1733
        • DeJong C.
        • Aguilar T.
        • Tseng C.W.
        • Lin G.A.
        • Boscardin W.J.
        • Dudley R.A.
        Pharmaceutical industry-sponsored meals and physician prescribing patterns for Medicare beneficiaries.
        JAMA Intern Med. 2016; 176: 1114-1122
        • Taylor R.
        • Giles J.
        Cash interests taint drug advice.
        Nature. 2005; 437: 1070-1071
        • Luce E.A.
        • Jackman C.A.
        Disclosure of financial conflicts of interest in plastic and reconstructive surgery.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017; 140: 635-639
        • Okike K.
        • Kocher M.S.
        • Wei E.X.
        • Mehlman C.T.
        • Bhandari M.
        Accuracy of conflict-of-interest disclosures reported by physicians.
        N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 1466-1474