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        • Bone Graft Substitutes: Current Concepts and Future Expectations
          Journal of Hand SurgeryVol. 44Issue 6
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            Owing to its osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties and the presence of osteogenic cells, freshly harvested autologous bone graft is the gold standard for skeletal reconstruction where there is inadequate native bone. Whereas these characteristics are difficult to replicate, engineered, commercially available bone graft substitutes aim to achieve a comparable osseoregenerative profile. This work furnishes the reader with an understanding of the predominant classes of bone graft substitutes available for reconstruction of upper extremity bone defects following trauma or oncological surgery.
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