Dissatisfaction with the Swanson (International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand [IFSSH]) Classification of Congenital Anomalies of the Hand and Upper Limb prompted a number of hand surgeons and anatomical pathologists to consider alternatives.
1The Swanson classification and its modifications were first presented in the 1960s according to the understanding of limb development and causation of limb anomalies present at the time. It has been effective and useful.
- Manske P.R.
- Oberg K.C.
Classification and developmental biology of congenital anomalies of the hand and upper extremity.
J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009; 91: 3-18
- Swanson A.B.
- Swanson G.D.
- Tada K.
A classification for congenital limb malformation.
J Hand Surg Am. 1983; 8: 693-702
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- Classification and developmental biology of congenital anomalies of the hand and upper extremity.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009; 91: 3-18
- A classification for congenital limb malformation.J Hand Surg Am. 1983; 8: 693-702
- Views on the Oberg-Manske-Tonkin classification for congenital anomalies of the hand and upper limb.J Hand Surg Am. 2017;
- Developmental biology and classification of congenital anomalies of the hand and upper extremity.J Hand Surg Am. 2010; 35: 2066-2076
- IFSSH Scientific Committee on Congenital Conditions.J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2014; 39: 676-678
- Epidemiology of congenital upper limb anomalies in a midwest United States population: an assessment using the Oberg, Manske, and Tonkin classification.J Hand Surg Am. 2015; 40: 127-132.e1–2
- Teratogenic relationship between polydactyly, syndactyly and cleft hand.J Hand Surg Br. 1990; 15: 201-209
- Modified IFSSH classification.J Jpn Soc Surg Hand. 2000; 17: 353-365
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